Back in the late 1980s, an AK47 coming into the United States had been produced in the People's Republic of China. At that time, China had not achieved the prominence it has today as one of the world's major economic and manufacturing forces.

在20世纪80年代末,进入美国市场的AK47有一部分是在中国生产的。当时,中国还没有取得今天世界主要经济和制造业力量的显赫地位。

Among its more popular exports were semiauto versions of the AK47. They were inexpensive, worked well and were sold by the thousands. One of the makers was Poly Technologies, with an importer headquartered in the state of Georgia.

在其更受欢迎的出口产品中,包括AK47的半自动版本(译者注:即56半)。它们价格低廉,性能良好,销售量数以千计。其中一家制造商就是保利技术公司,其进口商的总部设在乔治亚州。

Because of the widespread acceptance of the company's products, the people at Poly Technologies felt it would be appropriate for a journalist to visit one of the company's factories and see just how the guns were turned out. As it so happened, I was chosen by the company's representatives because of my writings on various types of military firearms. Needless to say, the invitation was graciously accepted.

由于该公司的产品在美国被广泛认可,保利公司决定,邀请一些人参观他们的枪械工厂,看看这些枪支是如何加工出来的。当时,我正在撰写各类军用枪械的著作,幸运地被保利公司选中来到中国。



图为作者观看工人检查需要105道工序才能完成的机匣。

In 1987, Beijing looked nothing like it does today. In fact, automobiles were scarce and neon signs — or any kind of advertising, for that matter — nonexistent, and it was virtually impossible for a foreigner to travel without some sort of escort.

1987年的北京与今天的北京是完全不同的。事实上,路上汽车很少,霓虹灯——或任何类型的广告牌——都是不存在的,外国人在没有当地人陪同的情况下,想要旅行几乎是不可能的。

There was no air pollution, bicycles commanded the byways, and the city looked much as it did before World War II. It was a real step back in time. Mao's influence was still very much felt, and in many places I visited, I was something of a curiosity — the locals never having seen an "ocean man" before.
Let's step back to 1987 and see just how the early export AK47 was made.

那时候还没有空气污染,来来往往的自行车在公路上行驶着,城市看起来和二战前差不多。恍惚间仿佛是时光倒流。毛的影响仍然非常明显,我访问了许多地方,我常常被人们好奇的注视——当地人从未见过 "洋人"。
让我们回到1987年,看看早期出口的AK47是如何制造的。



工人们正在组装和测试用于AK47/S的30发弹匣。在工厂的测试中,笔者发现它们相当可靠。
原创翻译:龙腾网 http://www.ltaaa.cn 转载请注明出处


At the time, China was beginning its somewhat guarded capitalistic efforts, and firearms played a large part in this endeavor. I dare say, if you'd told a GI in Vietnam in 1969 that, some 20 years later, one of the most popular firearms in the United States would be a semiauto version of the AK47 assault rifle, he would have been incredulous, to say the least.

当时,中国正谨慎地开始其资本主义方向的努力,而枪支贸易在这中间中发挥了很大作用。我敢说,如果你在1969年告诉一个在越南的美国大兵:大约20年后,美国最流行的枪支之一将是半自动版AK47突击步枪时,他恐怕会感到难以置信。

At the time, the AK47 was not the only firearms coming into the United States. There was a dizzying variety of surplus arms, such as Mauser rifles, Mauser Broomhandle auto pistols — both German originals and Chinese-made copies — and various kinds of Browning and Colt copies. Early on, some American entrepreneurs managed to get hold of some very rare variants, but that didn't last for long, as the Chinese were quick learners.

当时,AK47并不是进入美国市场的唯一武器产品。有大量各种令人眼花缭乱的库存武器,比如毛瑟步枪、毛瑟自动手枪——包括德国原版和中国制造的仿制品——以及各种勃朗宁和柯尔特仿制品。早些时候,一些美国收藏家获得了不少罕见的型号,但这种情况并没有持续多久,中国不再出口古董枪械。

The main purpose of my trip was to get a look at two of Poly Tech's latest products: a semiauto version of the U.S. M14 rifle and the milled-receiver version of the AK47, which it called the AK47/S.

我此行的主要目的是了解保利公司的两个最新产品:仿美国M14半自动步枪和铣削机匣版AK47,它被称为AK47/S。


Up until that time, Chinese commercial production had strictly been a stamped version of the AK47. The new Poly Technologies rifle was extremely close to the milled issue Type 56. It had a receiver made from a single ingot of ordnance steel — an operation that took 105 separate steps.

在那之前,中国的生产的AK47一直是冲压机匣版本。保利公司新的ak47步枪与56式冲锋枪类似。它的机匣采用整块钢锭切削而成,需要105个工序才能完成。

I was invited to tour Factory No. 386 in Long Yan, Fu Jian Province. Located in the mountains of south China, some five hours' drive (by some very tortuous roads, I might add) out of the city of Xiamen. This factory was the one chosen to make the AK47/S. I was able to view the entire production process and accorded complete freedom in the factory. Interestingly enough, like many other firearms factories , Factory No. 386 also made bicycles. The brand name, as I recollect, was Fairy.

我被邀请去参观位于福建省龙岩市的386厂。该厂位于中国南部山区,离厦门市约五个小时的车程(由于道路崎岖耽误了不少时间)。这家工厂生产的枪械是AK47/S。我能够看到整个生产过程,并在工厂里获得了完全的自由。有趣的是,像中国许多其他枪支工厂一样,386厂也生产自行车。我还记得他们的牌子名叫“仙女”。

As you might imagine, automation was a bit on the short side, and the machinery looked as if it dated from between the World Wars — which it probably did. Each part was virtually made by hand and was individually checked before assembly, not only at the inspection stations, but also at the operator level.

正如大家看到的,这个工厂的自动化程度偏低,机械设备看起来就是二战时的一样——或许的确如此。几乎每个零件都是手工制作,在装配前再逐一检查。但这些检查并非专门的质检,而是工人自行检查。

Right at the outset of the tour, we happened upon large stacks of receiver ingots awaiting their turn in the factory. Later, we were able to see every part being made, from the receiver through the bayonets to the stocks. The amount of skilled labor involved was impressive, as was the end product.

从参观的开始,我们就看到了大堆的钢锭,在工厂里等待着它们的旅程。接着,我们能够看到正在制造的每一个部件,从枪机到刺刀再到枪托。一支步枪所涉及的技术工人的数量令人印象深刻,当然最终的成品也是如此。

I remember one fellow straightening the barrels by eyeballing bores and then sticking the barrel in a clamp and tweaking it manually by turning a big wheel in whatever direction was needed to ensure a true product.

我记得有一个人将枪管固定在特殊的夹具上,通过用肉眼观察枪膛来调整一个大转轮,校正枪管的准直。

As might be expected, there was no lack of a labor force, and the plant itself, while spacious and liberally decorated with Communist patriotic slogans and get-out-the-work admonitions, would have given an OSHA inspector apoplexy. Personal safety equipment, such as goggles, gloves or masks, was nonexistent, as were guards on most of the machinery.

正如可以预料的一样,这里人很多,厂房很宽敞,墙上有一些宣传口号,同时还有注意安全等警示语,但工人并没有必要的安全防护设备,比如护目镜、手套或面具等,大多数机器上的防护装置也是不存在。
原创翻译:龙腾网 http://www.ltaaa.cn 转载请注明出处



The workers were housed in quarters on the plant site and spent the better part of their existence at the plant. There were schools, dining areas and recreational facilities. It was expected that the children would grow up and be trained to work at Factory No. 386.

工人们住在厂区的宿舍里,他们大部分时间都是在工厂里度过的。这里有学校、食堂和娱乐设施。估计工人的子女长大了接受培训以后,还会在386厂工作。

After receiving a complete — and I mean complete — run-through of all the manufacturing processes, I was given a finished AK47/S, randomly pulled off the line, to uate.

参观完完整的制作流程后,我随机拿了一支刚刚完成的AK-47/S进行测试。

It featured a Soviet-style knife bayonet, checkered grip, spring-loaded firing pin and double-reinforced buttstock tang. The low-combed butt, forend and handguard were finished in a semi-gloss mahogany-stained chiu wood, much like the production Type 56s. Even the magazines were of a premium grade. Accessories included a brace of 30-round mags, cleaning kit, web sling, bayonet and an oil bottle.

它装了一把苏式刀刺刀,握把上有方格防滑纹路,弹簧式撞针和双重加强的枪托。哑光枪托和护木采用染色的实木制造非常漂亮,与他们生产的56式极为相似。配件包括一个质量很好的30发的弹夹,清洁工具,背带,刺刀和一个油壶。

Like the standard AK47, the rear sight was graduated to 800 meters, and the front sight was an adjustable post-style, protected by a pair of lugs. The action was smooth, and the gun had a trigger pull of 4? pounds.

和标准的AK47一样,表尺射程为800米,带护翼的可调准星。枪机很流畅,扳机力20牛。


I was able to take the rifle to the plant's indoor range and run a few rounds through it with a variety of ammo, including corrosive Chinese steel-cased stuff (like other AK47s, the AK47/S had a chrome-lined chamber and bore to help guard against the erosive effects of the primers), PMC ball and Hansen Yugoslavian ammo. AK47s are not noted for pinpoint accuracy, and the best I could do with my test gun was rested 3 3/4- to 4 1/4-inch 100-yard groups

我把步枪带到工厂的室内靶场,用各种弹药打了几发,包括具有腐蚀性的中国钢壳弹(像其他AK47一样,AK47/S有镀铬枪膛和枪管,以防止底火的侵蚀作用)、PMC弹和南斯拉夫汉森弹。AK47的精度并不高,我的测试枪能做到的最好成绩是百米散布范围95~108mm。

The gun handled all of the ammo with aplomb. There were no hang-ups, even with rapid-fire groups. All in all, I was quite impressed with the product — so impressed that, when I got back to the U.S., I bought one myself and retain it to this very day. It has since had untold quantities of ammo run through it, and it is still working just fine.

这支AK47/S可靠地打完了所有弹药,即便是快速连续射击,也没有出现任何问题。总而言之,我对该产品印象深刻——当我回到美国时,我自己也买了一把,并保存到今天。它发射过无数的弹药,依旧性能出色。

I was also shown prototypes of Poly Tech's M14 copy, and while it looked good and fired well under controlled circumstances, the finished export rifle ultimately proved to be somewhat lacking in quality, as buyers found that heat-treating in the receivers was somewhat indifferent. The M14 clone never had the popularity or acceptance of the AK47 and was sold in much more limited quantities before production finally ceased.

我还看到了保利公司仿制的M14步枪,虽然它看起来不错,而且在可控的情况下射击效果很好,但最终证明出口的成品步枪在质量上有些欠缺,有买家发现枪托的热处理不佳。M14仿制品没有像AK47那样受到欢迎,在停产前,它的销售数量有限。
原创翻译:龙腾网 http://www.ltaaa.cn 转载请注明出处




位于中国龙岩的386厂在1987年时的样子。这是一个完全自给自足的社区,为其工人提供住所、食堂和学校。

I have not returned to China since that trip, and everyone who comes back tells me I would not recognize Beijing. I'm glad I saw China as it was before the country became more modernized. Factory No. 386 was also a real treat and gave one a glimpse into the arms-making styles of earlier days.

那次旅行后,我再也没有去过中国,每个从那回来的人都告诉我,我绝对认不出现在的北京。我很幸运能在这个国家变得更加现代化之前看到了中国的原貌。386厂的参观也是一种真正的享受,让人们得以一窥早期的武器制造方式。

I have to admit, my hosts couldn't have been more cooperative and pleasant, and I still have many fond memories of the excursion, but the best one still resides in my gun locker.

那次中国之行至今仍然给我留下很多美好的回忆,而最好的部分至今还在枪柜里,不可能再有任何枪械比它更可靠,更让人愉快。